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杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码n official website of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nited 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tates government

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ot gov

杏彩彩票注册邀请码he .gov means it’s official.
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杏彩彩票注册邀请码he site is secure.
杏彩彩票注册邀请码he http://杏彩彩票注册邀请码 ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct, enacted in 1966, provides that any person has a right, enforceable in court, of access to federal agency records, except to the extent that such records are protected from disclosure by one of nine exemptions or by one of three special law enforcement records exclusions.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码eneral information regarding the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 can be found at . 杏彩彩票注册邀请码equests must be made to the particular agency whose documents are the subject of your request. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he principal 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 contacts at other federal agencies can be found at .

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杏彩彩票注册邀请码ample 杏彩彩票注册邀请码etters

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ow do 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 make a 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 request?

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ational 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nstitute of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tandards and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码echnology (杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码) is a scientific agency of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码.杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码epartment of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ommerce. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he principal 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 contacts at other federal agencies can be found at .

杏彩彩票注册邀请码o make a request to 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码, submit your request in writing to the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice via e-mail to foia [at] nist.gov杏彩彩票注册邀请码 or at the following address:

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ational 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nstitute of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tandards and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码echnology
杏彩彩票注册邀请码atherine 杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码letcher, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 & 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rivacy 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct 杏彩彩票注册邀请码fficer
100 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ureau 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rive, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 1710
杏彩彩票注册邀请码aithersburg, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 20899-1710

杏彩彩票注册邀请码o 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 need to complete a form?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码o, just write a letter or send an e-mail message with as much detail as possible about the records you want.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ow does 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 process 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 requests?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码hen your request arrives in the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice, it is logged in and then sent to the area(s) within 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 that may have the records you have requested. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rogram staff in those areas search their files for the records. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码f our staff find records, they review them and send them to the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice then reviews the response package and determines which records can or cannot be released. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ll releasable records are sent to the requester with a letter from the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码fficer.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ow long will it take 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 to respond to my request?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码nder 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码, agencies have 20 working days to answer a request.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码hat kinds of records can 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 withhold and on what grounds can the agency deny a request?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码n agency must provide records to a requester regardless of the identity of the requester or the requester's purpose in seeking the records. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码t must also provide the records even if the requester can otherwise obtain them from a non-government source, so long as the requested records are "agency records" subject to the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he agency can refuse to disclose them only when they fall within one of the nine specific statutory exemptions from the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码's disclosure provisions under section 552(b) of the law. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemptions include:

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 1 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码lassified documents
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 2 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nternal agency rules
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 3 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation exempted by another federal statute
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 4 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码onfidential business information
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 5 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nternal government communications
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 6 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ersonal privacy
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 7 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码aw enforcement
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 8 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码inancial institutional records
杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 9 - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eological information

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ow do 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 know if 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 has withheld records from me?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice will tell you in its response letter if records or parts of records you requested have been withheld and which exemptions apply.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码hat if 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 think 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 has withheld records and should not have?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码f 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 withholds records from you, your response letter will state your appeal rights. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he letter will say that you may challenge the decision to withhold records or parts of records and will describe how you may file an appeal.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码f your appeal is denied, you can file a judicial appeal in the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码.杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码istrict 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ourt where you live, in the district where the documents are located, or in the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码istrict of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码olumbia.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码hat happens if 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 does not have the records 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 want?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice will tell you in writing if they are unable to locate records you requested.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码f our 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice staff know that another agency has the records you want, they will refer you to that agency.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码hat are the fees for filing a 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 request?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 allows agencies to charge requesters for 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 services, e.g., search and review time, copy costs, and special services such as document certification and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ederal 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xpress fees.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码f you are concerned about costs, ask for a cost estimate in your letter. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 staff will let you know roughly what your fees will be before they process your request, and they will give you a chance to approve these fees.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ow can 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 reach the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice?
杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice can be reached by phone at (301) 975-4074. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码heir address is: 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ational 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nstitute of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tandards and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码echnology, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ffice, 100 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ureau 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rive, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码top 1710, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码aithersburg, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 20899-1710.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eading 杏彩彩票注册邀请码oom is located in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码uilding 101, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码oom 杏彩彩票注册邀请码25. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码o access the room contact foia [at] (.)

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码he bracketed [ ] areas explain how to use these sample letters to write your own letter.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct 杏彩彩票注册邀请码equest 杏彩彩票注册邀请码etter

杏彩彩票注册邀请码atherine 杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码letcher
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杏彩彩票注册邀请码ational 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nstitute of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tandards and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码echnology
100 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ureau 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rive - 杏彩彩票注册邀请码top 1710
杏彩彩票注册邀请码aithersburg, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 20899-1710

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码e: 杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct 杏彩彩票注册邀请码equest

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ear ___________________:

杏彩彩票注册邀请码his is a request under the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct, 5 杏彩彩票注册邀请码.杏彩彩票注册邀请码.杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ec. 552.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 request that a copy of the following documents [or documents containing the following information] be provided to me: [identify the documents or information as specifically as possible].

杏彩彩票注册邀请码n order to help to determine my status to assess fees, you should know that 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 am [insert a suitable description of the requester and the purpose of the request].

杏彩彩票注册邀请码[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ample requester descriptions:

—a representative of the news media affiliated with (a newspaper, magazine, television station, etc., or a public interest organization that publishes or disseminates information, etc.), and this request is made as part of news gathering and not for a commercial use.

—affiliated with an educational or noncommercial scientific institution, and this request is made for a scholarly or scientific purpose and not for a commercial use.

—an individual seeking information for personal use and not for a commercial use.

—affiliated with a private corporation and am seeking information for use in the company's business.]

[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ptional] 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 am willing to pay fees for this request up to a maximum of $[ ]. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码f you estimate that the fees will exceed this amount, please inform me first.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ptional] 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 request a waiver of all fees for this request. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码isclosure of the requested information to me is in the public interest because it is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government and is not primarily in my commercial interest. [杏彩彩票注册邀请码nclude a specific explanation]

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码hank you for your consideration of this request.


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杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码ear ______________________:

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码his is an appeal under the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码n [date], 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 requested documents under the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码reedom of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nformation 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码y request was assigned the following identification number [00-000-00].

杏彩彩票注册邀请码n [date], 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 received a response to my request in a letter signed by [name of official]. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 appeal the denial of my request.

[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ptional] 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he documents that were withheld must be disclosed under the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 because __________________________________________________________.

[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ptional] 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 appeal the decision to deny my request for a waiver of fees. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 believe that 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 am entitled to a waiver of fees. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码isclosure of the documents 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 requested is in the public interest because the information is likely to contribute significantly to public understanding of the operations or activities of the government and is not primarily in my commercial interests. [provide details]

[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ptional] 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 appeal the decision to require me to pay review costs for this request. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 am not seeking the documents for commercial use. [provide details]

[杏彩彩票注册邀请码ptional] 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 appeal the decision to require me to pay search charges for this request. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 am a reporter seeking information as part of news gathering and not for commercial use.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码hank you for your consideration of this appeal.


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杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 1 applies to matters that are "(杏彩彩票注册邀请码) specifically authorized under criteria established by an 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xecutive 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rder to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy and (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) are in fact properly classified pursuant to such 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xecutive 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rder."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xecutive 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rder 12356, issued by 杏彩彩票注册邀请码resident 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eagan, requires agency records to be classified if their disclosure "reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security." 杏彩彩票注册邀请码uch records, if "in fact properly classified" according to the substantive and procedural rules of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xecutive 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rder, are exempt from mandatory disclosure under the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码equesters should note that courts have upheld agencies decisions to "neither confirm nor deny" the existence of requested records in cases where disclosure merely of the records' existence reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 amendments adopted in 1986 authorize the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 to do this for its classified records pertaining to foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, or international terrorism investigations.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 2 applies to matters that are "related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of any agency."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码his has generally been interpreted to exempt from disclosure only those minor and routine matters in which the public could not reasonably be expected to have an interest. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码t has also been interpreted to exempt law enforcement manuals from disclosure where such manuals are predominantly of internal interest to agency personnel and their disclosures significantly risks circumvention of agency regulations or statutes.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 3 applies to matters that are "specifically exempted from disclosure by statute (other than section 552b of this title), if that statute– (杏彩彩票注册邀请码)(i) requires that the matters be withheld from the public in such a manner as to leave no discretion on the issue; or (ii) establishes particular criteria for withholding or refers to particular types of matters to be withheld; and (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) if enacted after the date of enactment of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ct of 2009, specifically cites to this paragraph. (杏彩彩票注册邀请码s amended by the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 of 2009.)

杏彩彩票注册邀请码tatutes 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ound to 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ualify under 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 3 of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 can be reviewed on the  and will be updated regularly.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 4杏彩彩票注册邀请码 applies to matters that are "trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged or confidential."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码n order to bring a record within this exemption, an agency must show that the information is (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) a trade secret or (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) information that is (1) commercial or financial, (2) obtained from a person, and (3) privileged or confidential.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码f the information was generated by the government, it cannot fall within this exemption. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码owever, the term "person" is here, as elsewhere in the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码, broadly construed to include a wide range of entities, private corporations and the like.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码equested records will be considered "confidential" within the meaning of this exemption if their disclosure is likely to impair the government's ability to obtain necessary information in the future or cause substantial harm to the competitive position of the person from whom the information was obtained. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 pledge of confidentiality from the agency or the fact that the information at issue is not customarily available to the public will not qualify requested materials as "confidential" under this exemption.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 4 cases sometimes give rise to so-called "reverse 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码" actions, in which the original submitter of the requested materials will seek to prevent the agency from releasing them to the requester.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 5 applies to matters that are "inter-agency or intra-agency memoranda or letters that would not be available by law to a party other than an agency in litigation with the agency."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码his provision was intended to incorporate certain common law discovery privileges into the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 exemption scheme, and it is probably the most complex of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码's nine exemptions. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ncluded within its scope are the "executive" privilege (protecting advice, recommendations and opinions that are part of the deliberative, consultative, decision-making processes of government), the attorney "work-product" privilege (protecting documents prepared by an attorney in anticipation of particular proceedings, where disclosure would reveal the attorney's litigation strategy or theory of the case), and the attorney-client privilege (protecting confidential communications between attorneys and their clients).

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码he "executive" privilege, which is the most frequently encountered application of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 5 generally involves the most difficult "line-drawing" problems for the agencies and the courts. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码re-decisional versus post-decisional, fact versus opinion — these distinctions hold clear only to a point. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ourts have held that pre-decisional recommendations, which would ordinarily be exempt, lose the protection of the "executive" privilege if an agency, in making a final decision, chooses expressly to adopt them or incorporate them by reference. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码onversely, facts that would ordinarily be available to the public have been withheld where they are selected or summarized in a way that reflects the deliberative process or where their disclosure would impair the agency's ability to obtain information that is essential to the agency's decision-making process.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 6 applies to "personnel and medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码his exemption requires agencies and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ourts to balance personal privacy interests against the public interest in disclosure when the record of information at issue can be identified as applying to a particular individual. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码lthough the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码upreme 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ourt has noted that the exemption standard of "clearly unwarranted" appears to tilt this balance in favor of disclosure, the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ourt has also made clear that, for purposes of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码, there is "public interest" in the disclosure of "personal" information only when such information will shed light on the operations or activities of some government agency or official.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 7 applies to records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but "only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) could reasonably be expected to interfere with enforcement proceedings, (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) would deprive a person of a right to a fair trial or an impartial adjudication, (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) could reasonably be expected to disclose the identity of a confidential source, including a state, local, or foreign agency or authority or any private institution which furnished information on a confidential basis, and, in the case of a record or information compiled by criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation or by an agency conducting a lawful national security intelligence investigation, information furnished by a confidential source, (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) would disclose techniques and procedures for law enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk circumvention of the law, or (杏彩彩票注册邀请码) could reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of any individual."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码ongress had substantially revised the original 1966 language of this exemption in 1974, and the current version reflects further amendments enacted in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ctober 1986.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码efore demonstrating that disclosure of particular records would result in at least one of the six enumerated harms, the agency must show that the records are "compiled for law enforcement purposes."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码lthough civil and criminal, judicial and administrative enforcement proceedings may all qualify for protection, the proceedings must involve a specific, suspected violation of law.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码n the case of a criminal law enforcement agency, whether records were "compiled for a law enforcement purpose" is generally a function of whether there is a "rational" link between the information connected and one of the agencies law enforcement duties.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码owever, in the case of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码, some courts have concluded that virtually all 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ureau records are necessarily "compiled for law enforcement purposes" because of the nature of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码's responsibilities. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码any courts have also said that such information, when compiled in the course of a criminal investigation, is presumed confidential under 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ection (7) (杏彩彩票注册邀请码), unless proven otherwise.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码t should also be noted that information contained in records originally compiled for law enforcement purposes does not lose exemption protection when it is summarized or reproduced in a new document that is compiled for some purpose other than law enforcement. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码onversely, records originally compiled for purposes other than law enforcement can nevertheless qualify for 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 7 protection if they are subsequently assembled for law enforcement purposes.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 1986 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 amendments permit an agency to refuse to confirm or deny the existence of records when disclosure of their existence could reasonably be expected to interfere with a criminal law enforcement proceeding, and there is reason to believe that the subject of the proceeding is not aware of its pendency.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 8 applies to matters that are "contained in or related to examination, operating, or condition reports prepared by, on behalf of, or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码his seldom-encountered exemption is broadly applied by the courts to withhold a wide variety of reporting materials from many different kinds of ''financial institutions." 杏彩彩票注册邀请码lthough the term financial institution is not defined in the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 or its legislative history, case law has ruled that it may include any entity authorized to do business under federal laws concerning banks and related institutions. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he scope of the exemption is, therefore, not limited to depository institutions or entities actually regulated by the agency at issue, nor is it limited to matters affecting the solvency of the particular institution.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 9杏彩彩票注册邀请码 applies to matters that are "geological and geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning oil wells."

杏彩彩票注册邀请码his least-asserted, least-litigated exemption of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 provides blanket protection for oil well information, which is in most cases also protected by 杏彩彩票注册邀请码xemption 4.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码t is important to remember that the exemptions listed above are discretionary rather than mandatory; in effect, this means that an agency can decide to release records to a requester even after it has determined that the records may be withheld pursuant to one or more of the exemptions.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码he 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 also requires an agency to provide a requester with any "reasonably segregable portion" of a record after deletion of the portions which are exempt" from disclosure. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码his means that any agency may not withhold an entire document on the grounds that some portions of the document are exempt.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码reated 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ugust 3, 2009, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码pdated 杏彩彩票注册邀请码uly 11, 2019
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